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Monday, March 25, 2013

Regulation of cytochrome P450 2e1 expression by ethanol: role of oxidative stress-mediated pkc/jnk/sp1 pathway


CYP2E1 metabolizes ethanol leading to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and acetaldehyde, which are known to cause not only liver damage but also toxicity to other organs. However, the signaling pathways involved in CYP2E1 regulation by ethanol are not clear, especially in extra-hepatic cells.

This study was designed to examine the role of CYP2E1 in ethanol-mediated oxidative stress and cytotoxicity, as well as signaling pathways by which ethanol regulates CYP2E1 in extra-hepatic cells. In this study, we used astrocytic and monocytic cell lines, because they are important cells in central nervous system .

Our results showed that 100mM ethanol significantly induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell death at 24h in the SVGA astrocytic cell line, which was rescued by a CYP2E1 selective inhibitor, diallyl sulfide (DAS), CYP2E1 siRNA, and antioxidants (vitamins C and E).

Further, we showed that DAS and vitamin C abrogated ethanol-mediated (50mM) induction of CYP2E1 at 6h, as well as production of ROS at 2h, suggesting the role of oxidative stress in ethanol-mediated induction of CYP2E1.

We then investigated the role of the protein kinase C/c-Jun N-terminal kinase/specificity protein1 (PKC/JNK/SP1) pathway in oxidative stress-mediated CYP2E1 induction.

Our results showed that staurosporine, a non-specific inhibitor of PKC, as well as specific PKCζ inhibitor and PKCζ siRNA, abolished ethanol-induced CYP2E1 expression. In addition, inhibitors of JNK (SP600125) and SP1 (mithramycin A) completely abrogated induction of CYP2E1 by ethanol in SVGA astrocytes.

Subsequently, we showed that CYP2E1 is also responsible for ethanol-mediated oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in U937 monocytic cell lines. Finally, our results showed that PKC/JNK/SP1 pathway is also involved in regulation of CYP2E1 in U937 cells.

This study has clinical implications with respect to alcohol-associated neuroinflammatory toxicity among alcohol users.

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