Selective review of the literature and report of own findings based on long-term outcome studies.
Key features of FASD are short stature, microcephaly, various dysmorphic features, in severe cases amongst others consisting of congenital heart disease and dysplasias of the skeleton and urogenital system, varying degrees of developmental delay including mental retardation, and a positive history of maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy. Long-term outcome studies in young adulthood show that independent of the severity of FASD the key features remain associated with limitations of an independent life-style.
Pathogenesis of FASD is not sufficiently clear and there is no causal treatment. Thus, besides prevention and information, early diagnosis, installation of fostering or adoption, and intensive psychosocial care including selection of appropriate schooling, occupational counselling and supportive care in adulthood are mandatory.
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