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Saturday, August 29, 2009
Addiction Early View 27 August 2009
Cognitive–behavioral treatments (CBT) are among the most popular interventions offered for alcohol and other substance use disorders, but it is not clear how they achieve their effects. CBT is purported to exert its beneficial effects by altering coping skills, but data supporting coping changes as the mechanism of action are mixed. The purpose of this pilot study was to test a treatment in which coping skills were trained in a highly individualized way, allowing us to determine if such training would result in an effective treatment.
The IATP approach was more successful than PCBT at training adaptive coping responses for use in situations presenting a high risk for drinking. The highly individualized IATP approach may prove to be an effective treatment strategy for alcohol-dependent patients.
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Friday, August 28, 2009
The FASEB Journal Published online before print August 26, 2009
Humans who carry a point mutation in the gene coding for alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B*2; Arg47His) are markedly protected against alcoholism. Although this mutation results in a 100-fold increase in enzyme activity, it has not been reported to cause higher levels of acetaldehyde, a metabolite of ethanol known to deter alcohol intake. Hence, the mechanism by which this mutation confers protection against alcoholism is unknown.
To study this protective effect, the wild-type rat cDNA encoding rADH-47Arg was mutated to encode rADH-47His, mimicking the human mutation. The mutated cDNA was incorporated into an adenoviral vector and administered to genetically selected alcohol-preferring rats.
The Vmax of rADH-47His was 6-fold higher than that of the wild-type rADH-47Arg. Animals transduced with rAdh-47His showed a 90% increase in liver ADH activity and a 50% reduction in voluntary ethanol intake. In animals transduced with rAdh-47His, administration of ethanol (1g/kg) produced a short-lived increase of arterial blood acetaldehyde concentration to levels that were 3.5- to 5-fold greater than those in animals transduced with the wild-type rAdh-47Arg vector or with a noncoding vector
This brief increase (burst) in arterial acetaldehyde concentration after ethanol ingestion may constitute the mechanism by which humans carrying the ADH1B*2 allele are protected against alcoholism.
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Thursday, August 27, 2009
Wednesday, August 26, 2009
August 26, 2009
Tuesday, August 25, 2009
This study sought to investigate the prevalence of co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders among a sample of persons receiving vocational rehabilitation services and to explore "recovery-related" factors and their association with employment outcomes for VR consumers who have dual psychiatric and substance use disorders.
'The practical guide for preventing and dealing with alcohol related problems: What you need to know' (pdf) is now available.
The guide, summary and related documents are available on this Home Office page which states:
Monday, August 24, 2009
In the present study, there was some evidence for a detrimental effect on health and social circumstances of exceeding current internationally recognized weekly and daily guidelines for alcohol intake.
Alcohol consumption is a considerable public health burden in the UK. The comparison of the health and economic burden of various lifestyle factors is essential in prioritizing and resourcing public health action.
Are Brief Alcohol Interventions Likely to be Effective in Routine Primary Care Practice?
Do Biomarkers Improve the Accuracy of Alcohol Screening in Acutely Injured Adults?
Does Clonidine Reduce the Duration of Opioid Therapy for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome?
Initiating Acamprosate during Alcohol Detoxification Is Not Beneficial and May Be Harmful
Implantable Naltrexone for Opioid Dependence
Treatment of Hepatitis C within a Methadone Maintenance Program Yields Results Comparable to Treatment via Other Models of Care
Effect of a Case Management Intervention as Part of a Needle Exchange Program on Opioid Agonist Treatment Retention
Alcohol Consumption Increases the Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction in the Next 12 Hours
Alcohol and Pancreatic Cancer
Heavy Drinking and Smoking are Associated with an Increased Risk of Chronic Pancreatitis
More Evidence Heavy Episodic Drinking Heightens HIV/STI Risk
Alcohol and HIV Disease Progression: Is Liquor Quicker (than Beer and Wine)?
Alcohol, Other Lifestyle Factors, and Mortality
Increases in Methamphetamine-Related Treatment Admissions for Pregnant Women
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Sunday, August 23, 2009
It is well known that the consumption of moderate doses of alcohol leads to increase of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). Atheroprotectivity of HDL particles is based primarily on their role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT).
Moderate alcohol consumption changes the capacity of plasma to induce CHE only at a border line significance.