To support the free and open dissemination of research findings and information on alcoholism and alcohol-related problems. To encourage open access to peer-reviewed articles free for all to view.

For full versions of posted research articles readers are encouraged to email requests for "electronic reprints" (text file, PDF files, FAX copies) to the corresponding or lead author, who is highlighted in the posting.


Saturday, July 6, 2013



Alcohol in the EU: The Basics

Europe is the heaviest drinking region in the world, with the averag European consumption accounting for twice that of the global alcohol intake. Over 1/5 of the European population aged 15 and older binge drink at least once a week. Alcohol is the third leading risk factor for disease and death after tobacco use and high blood pressure. Globally, the European Region has the highest proportion of ill health (7%) and early death due to alcohol.   > > > >  Read More

Friday, July 5, 2013

Normative Perceptions and Past-year Consequences as Predictors of Subjective Evaluations and Weekly Drinking Behavior


Problem drinking during the college years continues to be an important area of study. Subjective evaluations of consequences have recently been demonstrated to predict future drinking behavior; however, what predicts those evaluations is yet unknown.

Social Learning Theory (SLT) provides a guiding framework in this study with primary aims to investigate whether individual differences in past experience with and normative perceptions of alcohol consequences predict subjective evaluations (i.e., the extent to which consequences are perceived as negative, aversive, or severe) and weekly drinking behavior. We also test whether evaluations mediate the influence of past consequences and norms on weekly drinking behavior. Following a baseline assessment, participants (N = 96 regularly drinking college students, 52% female) completed ten weekly web-based surveys on previous week alcohol use, consequences, and subjective evaluations of those consequences. A series of hierarchical linear models were used to test hypotheses.

Most mediational pathways were not supported – weekly level evaluations do not appear to fully explain the effect of norms or past experience on weekly level drinking behavior. However, results demonstrated that normative perceptions of and past experience with consequences were associated with both weekly drinking behavior and subjective evaluations, and evaluations remained significant predictors of alcohol use behavior after accounting for these important between-person influences.

Findings support the importance placed by SLT on cognition in drinking behavior, and suggest that norms for consequences and subjective evaluations may be appropriate targets of intervention in college students.

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Sulforaphane Accelerates Acetaldehyde Metabolism by Inducing Aldehyde Dehydrogenases: Relevance to Ethanol Intolerance

Many East Asians are highly intolerant to even modest alcohol consumption. These individuals accumulate acetaldehyde, the primary metabolite of ethanol, because of a genetic polymorphism of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that metabolizes acetaldehyde to nontoxic acetate. The aim of these studies is to upregulate ALDH by dietary means, thereby reducing acetaldehyde toxicity.                    

Sulforaphane [SF, 1-isothiocyano-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane] derived from its glucosinolate precursor contained in cruciferous vegetables and related inducers of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway were assessed for their potencies to induce ALDH in murine hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells. Inducer potencies for ALDH were compared with those for NQO1, a prototypical cytoprotective enzyme present downstream of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. SF (5 or 20 µmol/day) was fed to CD-1 mice for 7 days prior to a single administration of ethanol, and then ALDH induction in organs and pharmacokinetics of acetaldehyde was examined.

In addition to SF, other electrophiles, including many Michael reaction acceptors, induce ALDH. Potencies of these agents as inducers parallel their activities in inducing NQO1, and are also dependent on Nrf2. In mice, in vivo, feeding of SF induced tissue ALDH and dramatically increased (doubled) the rate of elimination of acetaldehyde arising from the administration of ethanol.

SF and other edible phytochemicals may ameliorate the alcohol intolerance of individuals who are polymorphic with respect to ALDH.    

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The impact of cutting alcohol duties on drinking patterns in Hong Kong


In an effort to promote Hong Kong as a global wine hub, the government eliminated duties on wine and beer in 2008. The changes in alcohol consumption patterns are examined.

Anonymous, cross-sectional telephone surveys on a random sample of Chinese male and female residents aged 18–70 were carried out in 2011 (n = 4800) and 2012 (n = 1001). These data were compared with those of a 2006 (n = 9896) baseline survey conducted before the excise tax elimination.

Prevalence of those ever drinking alcohol significantly increased from the 2006 baseline level of 66.6% to 82.0% in 2011 and to 85.2% in 2012. Of note, 10.2% of ever drinkers within the 2012 sample reported consuming alcohol for the first time in or after 2008. Younger, more educated or more affluent parts of the population are more likely to be ever drinkers. Unexpectedly, prevalence of binge drinking in the population decreased slightly from the 2006 baseline of 9.0% to 7.1% in 2011 and to 7.3% in 2012. Quantity of alcohol reportedly consumed by individuals did not change, while alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence levels decreased. However, binge drinking prevalence among the unemployed has increased. Logistic regression showed that those with lower educational achievement and the unemployed have higher likelihood of binge drinking.

The government appears to have achieved its objective of making Hong Kong a world center for alcohol trade. However, the resulting access locally to cheaper alcohol has been associated with an increase in the numbers of those drinking alcohol. There has been a trend toward more adults drinking alcohol and greater risk of harm to some disadvantaged groups.

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The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) Glu504Lys polymorphism interacts with alcohol drinking in the risk of stomach cancer

The impact of alcohol on the risk of stomach cancer is controversial. Although aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) Glu504Lys (rs671) polymorphism has a strong effect on acetaldehyde metabolism, little is known about its impact on stomach cancer risk when combined with alcohol drinking.

This case-control study included a total of 697 incident stomach cancer case subjects and 1372 non-cancer control subjects who visited Aichi Cancer Center between 2001 and 2005. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ALDH2 genotypes and alcohol consumption using logistic regression models after adjustment for potential confounders, including Helicobacter pylori infection.

The ALDH2 504Lys allele was associated with the risk of stomach cancer, with adjusted ORs of 1.40 (95% CI, 1.11–1.76) for Glu/Lys and 1.73 (1.12–2.68) for Lys/Lys compared with Glu/Glu. Heavy drinking was associated with risk (OR 1.72, 1.17–2.52) after adjustment for ALDH2 genotype and other confounders. Moreover, ORs for heavy drinking were 1.28 (0.77–2.12) for those with ALDH2 Glu/Glu and 3.93 (1.99–5.79) for those with the ALDH2 Lys allele relative to non-drinkers with the Glu/Glu genotype (P for interaction = 0.0054).

In conclusion, ALDH2 and alcohol drinking showed interaction for risk factors of stomach cancer, indicating that acetaldehyde plays a role in stomach carcinogenesis.

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Functional imaging of an alcohol-Implicit Association Test (IAT)


This research assessed activation in neural substrates involved in implicit associative processes through functional magnetic resonance imaging of an alcohol-Implicit Association Test (IAT) focused on positive outcomes of alcohol use.

Comparisons involved 17 heavy and 19 light drinkers, ranging in age from 18 to 22, during compatible and incompatible association task trials.

Behaviorally, a significant IAT effect was found with heavy drinkers showing stronger positive implicit associations toward alcohol use than light drinkers. Imaging data revealed heavy drinkers showed greater activity during compatible trials relative to incompatible trials in the left putamen and insula while no significant difference in activity between conditions was found in the light drinkers.

Light drinkers showed significantly more activity in the left orbital frontal cortex during both compatible and incompatible trials than heavy drinkers, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was engaged more in both light and heavy drinkers during incompatible trials relative to compatible trials.

Further, within-group analyses showed significant amygdala activity along with the putamen and insula among heavy drinkers during compatible trials relative to incompatible trials.

These results are consistent with a dual process framework of appetitive behaviors proposing that (1) implicit associations underlying habit are mediated through neural circuitry dependent on the striatum, and (2) controlled behaviors are mediated through neural circuitry more dependent on the prefrontal cortex.

This is the first study to evaluate the neural mechanisms elicited by an alcohol-IAT, providing an additional step toward increasing understanding of associative habit processes and their regulatory influence over addictive behaviors.

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Thursday, July 4, 2013

Global Actions: Commitments to Reduce Harmful Drinking. JKuly 3, 2013

Global Actions in Focus
ICC Commission on Marketing and Advertising
After meeting in New York on June 3 and 4, 2013, the ICC Commission on Marketing and Advertising is developing a new global framework to promote responsible marketing communications of beverage alcohol. ICAP, supported by the World Federation of Advertisers, initially proposed that the ICC develop a framework.
“The ICC framework will complement steps already taken by sectoral groups to bolster existing self-regulatory effects and expand on them in markets where they are lacking,” said Brett Sanders, Chair of the Marketing and Advertising Commission.
ICAP Senior Vice President Brett Bivans met with the ICC Commission on Marketing and Advertising during their meeting in June to discuss a draft framework, which was based on ICAP’s Guiding Principles and a consensus built and globally committed to by CEOs of 13 major beer, wine and spirits producers.
The draft guide identifies existing ICC Code articles and will offer further interpretation and guidance to marketers and self-regulatory authorities. “The goal is to increase existing confidence in the self-regulatory approach even further, and ensure that it reaches across all markets,” said Oliver Gray, co-chair of the draft framework ICC experts’ group and Executive Director of the European Advertising Standards Alliance. “This initiative will do just that and, by building on the global commitments of the major alcohol beverage companies, will demonstrate responsibility via strong and coherent industry rules.”
Key Recent Milestones

· Worldwide: “Reducing Harmful Use of Alcohol: Beer, Wine, and Spirits Producers’ Commitments” is now available in Portuguese, courtesy of Pernod Ricard.

What's Happening Next
· India: The Commercial Driver’s Training Program will conclude on July 31, 2013. Global Actions partnered with the Institute of Road Traffic Education and College of Traffic Management, and since the program’s launch on April 22, 2013, 2,507 commercial drivers have completed the program, which focuses on drink driving regulations.

Wednesday, July 3, 2013

Usefulness of a Survey on Underage Drinking in a Rural American Indian Community Health Clinic,

This study examined the usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic.

One hundred ninety-seven youth (90 male, 107 female; age range 8-20 years) were recruited from clinic waiting rooms and through community outreach.

The study revealed that the usefulness of the survey was twofold: Survey results could be used by clinic staff to screen for underage drinking and associated problems in youth served by the clinic, and the process of organizing, evaluating, and implementing the survey results accomplished several important goals of community-based participatory research.

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Ethanol drinking in Withdrawal Seizure-Prone and -Resistant selected mouse lines

Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP) and Withdrawal Seizure-Resistant (WSR) mouse lines were bidirectionally selectively bred, respectively, to have severe or mild ethanol withdrawal handling-induced convulsions (HICs) after cessation of 3 days of ethanol vapor inhalation. Murine genotypes with severe withdrawal have been found to show low ethanol consumption, and high consumers show low withdrawal. An early drinking study with WSP and WSR mice showed modest evidence consistent with this genetic correlation, but there were several limitations to that experiment.

We therefore conducted a thorough assessment of two bottle ethanol preference drinking in both replicate pairs of WSP/WSR selected lines in mice of both sexes. Greater preference drinking of WSR-2 than WSP-2 female mice confirmed the earlier report. However, in the parallel set of selected lines, the WSP-1 mice drank more than the WSR-1s. Naive mice tested for preference for sucrose, saccharin and quinine did not differ markedly for any tastant. Finally, in a test of binge-like drinking, Drinking in the Dark (DID), WSP mice drank more than WSR mice and attained significantly higher (but still modest) blood ethanol concentrations.

Tests of acute withdrawal after DID showed a mild, but significant elevation in handling-induced convulsions in the WSP line. These results provide further evidence that 2-bottle ethanol preference and DID are genetically distinguishable traits.

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Effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on bony craniofacial development: A mouse MicroCT study

Craniofacial bone dysmorphology is an important but under-explored potential diagnostic feature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

This study used longitudinal MicroCT 3D imaging to examine the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on craniofacial bone growth in a mouse model. C57BL/6J dams were divided into 3 groups: alcohol 4.2% v/v in PMI® liquid diet (ALC), 2 weeks prior to and during pregnancy from embryonic (E) days 7-E16; pair-fed controls (PF), isocalorically matched to the ALC group; chow controls (CHOW), given ad libitum chow and water. The MicroCT scans were performed on pups on postnatal days 7 (P7) and P21. The volumes of the neurocranium (volume encased by the frontal, parietal, and occipital bones) and the viscerocranium (volume encased by the mandible and nasal bone), along with total skull bone volume, head size, and head circumference were evaluated using general linear models and discriminant analyses.

The pups in the alcohol-treated group, when compared to the chow-fed controls (ALC vs CHOW) and the isocaloric-fed controls (ALC vs PF), showed differences in head size and circumference at P7 and P21, the total skull volume and parietal bone volume at P7, and volume of all the tested bones except nasal at P21.

There was a growth trend of ALC < CHOW and ALC < PF. While covarying for gender and head size or circumference, the treatment affected the total skull and mandible at P7 (ALC > CHOW), and the total skull, parietal bone, and occipital bone at P21 (ALC < CHOW, ALC < PF). While covarying for the P7 measures, the treatment affected only the 3 neurocranial bones at P21 (ALC < CHOW, ALC < PF). Discriminant analysis sensitively selected between ALC and CHOW (AUC = 0.967), between ALC and PF (AUC = 0.995), and between PF and CHOW (AUC = 0.805).

These results supported our hypothesis that craniofacial bones might be a reliable and sensitive indicator for the diagnosis of prenatal alcohol exposure. Significantly, we found that the neurocranium (upper skull) was more sensitive to alcohol than the viscerocranium (face).

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Resting state synchrony in long-term abstinent alcoholics with versus without comorbid drug dependence


We previously reported that when long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA; with no drug comorbidity) are compared to controls, they show increased resting state synchrony (RSS) in the executive control network and reduced RSS in the appetitive drive network suggestive of compensatory mechanisms that may facilitate abstinence.

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether long-term abstinent alcoholics with comorbid stimulants dependence (LTAAS) show similar RSS mechanisms.

Resting-state functional MRI data were collected on 36 LTAAS (20 females, age: 47.85±7.30), 23 LTAA (8 females, age: M=47.91±6.76), and 23 non-substance abusing controls (NSAC; 8 females, age: M=47.99±6.70). Using seed-based measures, we examined RSS with the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC).

Results showed commonalities in LTAA and LTAAS RSS (similar enhanced executive control RSS and left insula RSS) as well as differences (no attenuation of appetitive drive RSS in LTAAS and no enhancement of RSS in right insula in LTAA)

We believe these differences are adaptive mechanisms that support abstinence. These findings suggest common as well as specific targets for treatment in chronic alcoholics with vs without comorbid stimulant dependence.

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Interventions for reducing alcohol consumption among general hospital inpatient heavy alcohol users: A systematic review

There is growing interest in pro-active detection and provision of interventions for heavy alcohol use in the general hospital inpatient population. We aimed to determine, from the available evidence, the effectiveness of interventions in reducing alcohol consumption among general hospital inpatient heavy alcohol users.

The following databases were searched for completed and on-going randomised and non-randomised controlled studies published up to November 2012: MEDLINE; C2-SPECTR; CINAHL; The Cochrane Library; Conference Proceedings Citation Index: Science; EMBASE; HMIC; PsycInfo; Public Health Interventions Cost Effectiveness Database (PHICED); and Studies were screened independently by two reviewers. Data extraction was performed by one reviewer and independently checked by a second.

Twenty-two studies which met the inclusion criteria enrolled 5307 participants in total. All interventions were non-pharmacological and alcohol focused. Results from single session brief interventions and self-help literature showed no clear benefit on alcohol consumption outcomes, with indications of benefit from some studies but not others. However, results suggest brief interventions of more than one session could be beneficial on reducing alcohol consumption, especially for non-dependent patients. No active intervention was found superior over another on alcohol consumption and other outcomes.

Brief interventions of more than one session could be beneficial on reducing alcohol consumption among hospital inpatients, especially for non-dependent patients. However, additional evidence is still needed before more definitive conclusions can be reached.

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Help seeking for drug and alcohol problems among adults age 50 and older: A comparison of the NLAES and NESARC surveys

Due to population aging and generational changes in alcohol and drug use, substance use disorders and treatment need are projected to increase among adults over 50. We analyzed data from two national surveys conducted 10 years apart [(NLAES (1991–1992) and NESARC (2001–2002)] to explore changes in help-seeking for alcohol and drug problems among adults over age 50.

Data were pooled on help seeking for substance related problems, sociodemographic and clinical variables, and services type (i.e., formal and informal). Differences between the surveys were assessed, and help seeking among those under age 50 was compared to younger individuals; changes in the sociodemographic and clinical correlates of help seeking among those over age 50 were examined.

Among those 50 and older, rates of lifetime help seeking for any substance problem were higher in NESARC than NLAES, and percentages of those considering but not getting help were also higher in NESARC. Among those 50+, rates of past-year help seeking for drug use were higher in NESARC, but among those with lifetime substance use disorders, help seeking rates for alcohol and any substance were lower in the NESARC. Older help seekers in the NESARC were less likely to be White, more likely to be low income, and more likely to be current or former drug users than NLAES help seekers.

This study documents increased rates of help seeking for substance related problems among those 50 and older and identifies cohort differences in profile of past-year help seekers.

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Tuesday, July 2, 2013

Disruption of alcohol-related memories by mTORC1 inhibition prevents relapse

Relapse to alcohol abuse is an important clinical issue that is frequently caused by cue-induced drug craving. Therefore, disruption of the memory for the cue-alcohol association is expected to prevent relapse. It is increasingly accepted that memories become labile and erasable soon after their reactivation through retrieval during a memory reconsolidation process that depends on protein synthesis.

Here we show that reconsolidation of alcohol-related memories triggered by the sensory properties of alcohol itself (odor and taste) activates mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in select amygdalar and cortical regions in rats, resulting in increased levels of several synaptic proteins.

Furthermore, systemic or central amygdalar inhibition of mTORC1 during reconsolidation disrupts alcohol-associated memories, leading to a long-lasting suppression of relapse.

Our findings provide evidence that the mTORC1 pathway and its downstream substrates are crucial in alcohol-related memory reconsolidation and highlight this pathway as a therapeutic target to prevent relapse.

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Cortical activation of accumbens hyperpolarization-active NMDARs mediates aversion-resistant alcohol intake

Compulsive drinking despite serious adverse medical, social and economic consequences is a characteristic of alcohol use disorders in humans. Although frontal cortical areas have been implicated in alcohol use disorders, little is known about the molecular mechanisms and pathways that sustain aversion-resistant intake.

Here, we show that nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) NMDA-type glutamate receptors and medial prefrontal (mPFC) and insula glutamatergic inputs to the NAcore are necessary for aversion-resistant alcohol consumption in rats.

Aversion-resistant intake was associated with a new type of NMDA receptor adaptation, in which hyperpolarization-active NMDA receptors were present at mPFC and insula but not amygdalar inputs in the NAcore. Accordingly, inhibition of Grin2c NMDA receptor subunits in the NAcore reduced aversion-resistant alcohol intake.

None of these manipulations altered intake when alcohol was not paired with an aversive consequence.

Our results identify a mechanism by which hyperpolarization-active NMDA receptors under mPFC- and insula-to-NAcore inputs sustain aversion-resistant alcohol intake.

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Monday, July 1, 2013

Alcohol News - 26/2013

University of Iceland (Iceland) - The financial crash reduced smoking and alcohol consumption
“The study aims to find out whether and how the economic crash influenced alcohol and tobacco consumption, specifically considering changes in the labour market, i.e. the reduction in the number of work hours and lowering of real income. Such labour market changes can influence health behaviour, i.e. how people invest in their present and future health,” says Þórhildur Ólafsdóttir, Doctoral Student of economics on a study that forms part of her doctoral thesis.
Daily Mail (Denmark) - People who have more than two alcoholic drinks a day may be TWICE as likely to die after surgery
People who have more than two alcoholic drinks a day are more likely to suffer complications after surgery than light drinkers. Infections and slow wound healing were the most common complications associated with heavy drinking, according to lead author Marie Eliasen of the National Institute of Public Health at the University of Southern Denmark in Copenhagen.
Jyllands Posten (Denmark) - Ferry operator revises alcohol policies after booze-related death
Fjord Line has moved to curb the drinking culture on its ferries after a young man died of alcohol poisoning while he was being held in detention on one of its vessels in April.
Sverige Radio (Sweden) - Sweden’s alcohol monopoly challenged
Buying wine online may get easier in Sweden. That's if grocery chain City Gross has its way. It wants to join forces with wine delivery service Winefinder to offer home deliveries to customers who order wine over the internet. (Finland) - Finnish food and drink pricier than EU average
Statistics Finland reports that a comparison of prices made in the spring of 2012 showed that Finnish prices were 19 percent higher than the EU average. In the European Union, Denmark has the highest price level while Poland is the cheapest.
Reitingi Latvijas (Latvia) - Saeima adopts in the final reading law amendments to reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages by young people
On Thursday, 20 June, the Saeima in the third and final reading supported amendments to the Handling of Alcoholic Beverages Law to limit the consumption of alcoholic beverages among children and young people.
BBC News (Wales) - Online shopping children drink worry, says Alcohol Concern Cymru
Significant numbers of children and young people in Wales are using online supermarket grocery services in order to buy alcohol, warns Alcohol Concern Cymru.
TVNZ (New Zealand) - Alcohol 'akin to asbestos in cancer stakes' – expert
New Zealand's excessive drinking culture is causing cancers with abysmally low survival rates, oncology experts say.
Medical Daily (USA) - A Third Of Kids Taste First Sips Of Alcohol As Early As Age 8, Study Says
In a study following adolescents from the Pittsburgh area, the majority kids admitted to trying alcohol before 18 years old, with 37 percent sipping alcohol as young as age 8, a study finds.
GlobalPost (Spain) - Spain raises taxes on alcohol, tobacco
The Spanish government, which is struggling to cut one of the eurozone's largest public deficits during a double-dip recession, on Friday raised taxes on tobacco and alcohol, except wine and beer.
Perth Now (Australia) - Push by health advocates to ban alcohol advertising online to protect children
HEALTH advocates want the Federal Government to ban the advertising of alcohol and other harmful products on websites that attract children.
Huffpost - Are Alcohol-Fuelled Arguments Ruining Your Friendships And Relationships?
We’ve all been there – you’ve both had a few too many drinks and somehow you end up rowing with your partner or your friend about the most inane thing. When it happens once in a while, it’s not too much of a concern, but when it starts happening regularly, you may need to do a stock take of whether alcohol is ruining your relationships.
Scientific American - Boozy Memory Blocking Reduces Risk of Relapse among Alcohol Abusers
Wiping out drinking-associated memories could help those with alcohol problems to stay sober, suggests a study in rats.
Daily Mail (UK) - Sunbathing and alcohol cause cancer rates to soar: Unhealthy lifestyles blamed for huge rises in past decade
Sunbathing has been blamed for a massive surge in cancer rates over the past ten years. Cancers caused by unhealthy lifestyles, such as drinking and smoking, have seen a rise of up to two-thirds in the last decade, official figures show.
Peru this Week (Peru) - Teenagers say it’s easy to buy alcohol in Peru
The last public opinion survey conducted by the Center for Education and Prevention of Drugs and Alcohol Abuse (Cedro) scared many parents in Peru. According to the survey four out of five youngster age 12 to 18 said it is easy for them to buy alcohol and cigarettes in this country.
IOL (South Africa) - This is your brain on alcohol
The human brain does not stop developing until a person’s mid-twenties – meaning heavy use of alcohol under the age of 21 can damage necessary growth processes. (New Zealand) - Sinking lid proposed in new alcohol policy
A sinking-lid for off-licence liquor outlets could be on the cards for the Hauraki district as part of its council's first local alcohol policy.
Irish Independent (Ireland) - Too much alcohol will grind the body to a halt
We are a nation of complicit drinkers: Sure, go on, have another one! At any triathlon or road race, the prospect of racing within your own age group is always fun if you're not a contender for the podium. Usually it's a shoe-in for a prize if you're running in the bottom 18-19 and 20-24 age groups as they are always direly underrepresented.
Glasgow Evening Times (Wales) - Glasgow's poor are smoking and drinking less
PEOPLE in the most deprived areas of Greater Glasgow's health board are smoking and drinking less and eating healthier than a decade ago.
Edinburgh Evening News (Scotland) - Fears pensioners ‘drinking themselves to death’
PENSIONERS in Scotland are drinking themselves to death as doctors try to combat an “epidemic” of alcohol abuse amongst the elderly.