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Friday, October 26, 2012


Abbreviations 9
Introduction 10
1. Revision of guidelines 12
2. Work of international bodies concerned with controlled substances 13
3. Critical review of psychoactive substances 14
3.1 Substance recommended for change in scheduling
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) 14
3.2 Other substance critically reviewed
Ketamine (INN) 16
4. Pre-review of psychoactive substances 17
4.1 Dextromethorphan (pINN) 18
4.2 Tapentadol (INN) 19
4.3 Piperazines 19
4.3.1 N-Benzylpiperazine (BZP) 19
4.3.2 1-(3-Trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) 20
4.3.3 1-(3-Chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) 20
4.3.4 1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)piperazine (MeOPP) 21
4.3.5 1-(3,4-Methylenedioxybenzyl)piperazine (MDBP) 21
4.4 γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) 22
4.5 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BD) 22
5. Issues identified for consideration at future ECDD meetings 23
6. Other matters 24
6.1 Use of terms 24
6.2 Use of pharmacovigilance data for the assessment of abuse and dependence potential 25
6.3 Balancing medical availability and prevention of abuse of medicines manufactured from controlled substances 25
6.4 Improving the process for substance evaluation 27
Acknowledgements 27
References 27

pg. 23    "There was a brief discussion as to whether ethanol (ethyl alcohol) should be considered for pre-review. The Secretariat informed the Expert Committee that WHO Secretariat and Member States are in the process of implementing the WHO Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol, which was adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 2010 (Resolution WHA63.13) (23). Noting this, the Expert Committee referred the matter for consideration at a future Expert Committee meeting."

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Thursday, October 25, 2012

A genome-wide association study of alcohol-dependence symptom counts in extended pedigrees identifies C15orf53

Several studies have identified genes associated with alcohol-use disorders (AUDs), but the variation in each of these genes explains only a small portion of the genetic vulnerability. The goal of the present study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in extended families from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism to identify novel genes affecting risk for alcohol dependence (AD).

To maximize the power of the extended family design, we used a quantitative endophenotype, measured in all individuals: number of alcohol-dependence symptoms endorsed (symptom count (SC)). Secondary analyses were performed to determine if the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with SC were also associated with the dichotomous phenotype, DSM-IV AD.

This family-based GWAS identified SNPs in C15orf53 that are strongly associated with DSM-IV alcohol-dependence symptom counts (P=4.5 × 10−8, inflation-corrected P=9.4 × 10−7). 

Results with DSM-IV AD in the regions of interest support our findings with SC, although the associations were less significant. Attempted replications of the most promising association results were conducted in two independent samples: nonoverlapping subjects from the Study of Addiction: Genes and Environment (SAGE) and the Australian Twin Family Study of AUDs (OZALC). Nominal association of C15orf53 with SC was observed in SAGE. 

The variant that showed strongest association with SC, rs12912251 and its highly correlated variants (D′=1, r2greater than or equal to 0.95), have previously been associated with risk for bipolar disorder.

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News & updates Oct 2012: minimum pricing battles re-heating; warning over alcohol budgets; 'baby boomers' under fire; MPs to debate duty escalator & forthcoming events

Minimum pricing battles re-heating

The alcohol pricing battleground has been re-heating with the imminent release of the consultation on proposals within the alcohol strategy, and as Scotland attempt to implement a 50 pence per unit minimum price.

With the actual minimum price for England still to be set, arguments for and against minimum pricing are being re-stated. Supporters have recently claimed a new Canadian study provides further evidence it would have a beneficial impact - a notion much disputed by Diageo's Mark Baird.   > > > >  Read More